Nanotechnology in sustainable development

14 Oct 2022 Dr. Nidal Mohamed

Nanotechnology is one of the latest technological and scientific developments in recent years, and one of the highlights of this technology is to significantly reduce resource consumption, in addition to providing alternatives to materials.
Rare primary or with a harmful environmental impact, it contributes to avoiding the use of hazardous materials that are highly toxic or harmful to the environment as much as possible, and raising the efficiency of products and methods of production to achieve the two previous goals. This technology also contributes to
Reducing emissions, discharges and waste during the production process and allowing the possibility of waste recycling and... Read More...

Nanotechnology is one of the latest technological and scientific developments in recent years, and one of the highlights of this technology is to significantly reduce resource consumption, in addition to providing alternatives to materials.
Rare primary or with a harmful environmental impact, it contributes to avoiding the use of hazardous materials that are highly toxic or harmful to the environment as much as possible, and raising the efficiency of products and methods of production to achieve the two previous goals. This technology also contributes to
Reducing emissions, discharges and waste during the production process and allowing the possibility of waste recycling and investment to be reused as raw materials. In this context, there are two main points that developing countries should note.
The first is that many of the means and methods of industrial production in these countries are old and traditional techniques, so the process of replacing or modernizing them represents an opportunity to keep pace with scientific and technical developments, and the second is that this modernization will take place at a time when
Concrete steps have already been taken in the practical application of nanotechnology in the most developed countries and some developing countries, including some Arab countries.
The world, represented by the widespread and accelerating application of nanotechnology in various industries, and then achieving the two goals of industrial modernization on the one hand and sustainable development on the other.

Principles of nanotechnology:-

One of the most important basic principles of nanotechnology
1- The possibility of controlling the atoms individually, moving and rearranging them.
2- The change of physical and chemical properties of a substance on the NATO scale from its properties at its natural scale.
3- The possibility of controlling the atoms in the manufacture of materials and machines, purifying them of impurities and ridding them of defects, which lead to

* The possibility of building any material because the atom is the basic building unit for all materials.
* Discover new properties of new materials.
* Better material properties, they are smaller, lighter, stronger, faster, cheaper and consume less energy.

What is green nanotechnology? With regard to sustainability and the environment, the application of nanotechnology can be very useful, for example in water purification processes, in the production of photovoltaic panels that are more efficient than conventional or
In the production of automated sensors, as well as in the production of new batteries for environmental energy storage (Hernández, et, 2017: 38). The two researchers believe that the term green nanotechnology is a comprehensive term that means how
Employing and investing nanotechnology and nanoscience in general to support and preserve the environment, so it has been called clean technology as well. There are many areas in which green nanotechnology can be used, including energy
Clean, food security, air and water purification and many more. Green nanotechnology has been defined as the use of nanotechnology to make current manufacturing processes for nanomaterials more environmentally friendly.
Nanotechnology helps separate harmful chemicals from waste materials, as well as using alternative energy systems, which is another way of green technology manufacturing processes.

Green nanotechnology applications: The field of environmental protection is one of the most prominent applied fields that nanotechnology pays great attention to. Nanotechnology can be used in the process of self-cleaning surfaces by
The use of environmentally friendly nanomaterials that interact with ultraviolet rays, as in: car windows, windows and paints, as well as the use of nanoparticles that work to get rid of pollutants and get rid of odors.
Unpleasant things such as the use of silver particles and titanium dioxide TiO2 and microscopic machines can remove toxic chemicals from wastewater that is dumped in rivers, and may be able to extract some radioactive isotopes from the wastewater
Nuclear reactors.

It can also reduce greenhouse emissions by 6% when it is started and up to 61% by the year 2050. This can be illustrated in the following table:

Green nanotechnology and clean energy (green energy): Green energy is energy that does not leave traces or residues that harm the environment, as is the case when using fuels obtained from natural sources.
Renewable nature (such as wind, tides, solar energy and ground energy), to be an alternative to fossil or traditional fuel sources (coal, oil and gas), which cause an increase in environmental pollution and global warming
The granules: thermal, ozone hole, and the scarcity and depletion of some natural resources (Al-Birmani, 6112). Silicon nanoparticles when used in the field of electric and solar energy generation are characterized by an increase in electrical energy production.
In addition to extending the life of the cell and reducing heat in it, nanotechnology also contributes to the manufacture of energy-saving batteries: energy, and mechanical wind energy using lightweight fans, which increases the energy generated by the wind.
Nanotechnology also improves the efficiency of batteries by using carbon nanotubes and nano-structured membranes, which leads to accelerating the charging process of dry batteries and making their lifespan faster.
Productivity is longer than that

Among the improvements in nanotechnology in the field of power generation:

1- Increasing the efficiency of electricity generated by windmills: using carbon nanotubes, which are characterized by lightness
Weight and strength, to make windmills blades.
2- Strips of nanotubes that can be used to reduce energy loss in electrical transmission wires.
3- Improving the performance of batteries, improving efficiency and reducing the cost of fuel cells.

Green nanotechnology in agriculture and food security: The recent applications of nanotechnology included the agricultural and food security sector, and were reflected in the change and development of technology used in the agricultural sector, such as
you feel

Soil fertility and raising its ability to produce high quality crops and the ability to resist agricultural diseases and pests. Where nanotechnology can be used in the areas of production, processing, packaging and food safety, for example
Nana capsules, which are used in addition to enhancing the flavor of foods, in the treatment and removal of chemicals and pathogens in foods, as well as in the field of packaging and packaging for the manufacture of packages
Nanoparticles that release some chemical preservatives for foodstuffs, and silica nanoparticles are used that prevent gas particles such as oxygen from penetrating those packages and spoiling food. As well as improving the work
Chemical pesticides for agricultural crops without leaving health effects on the rest of the organisms (Birmani, 27 21). It also works to develop active anti-microbial and anti-fungal surfaces, so molecules are included -
Zinc oxide in plastic packaging to block ultraviolet rays, provide protection and antibacterials

3 0 Nanotechnology in the field of water purification: Nanotechnology has worked to provide solutions to the problem of the shortage of water that is safe for human use by finding a technology to filter water, which is cheap and can eliminate pollutants
Water and clean it without the use of electric power. Nanotechnology is used for water purification, desalination and nano filtration and desalination, which is the so-called carbon tube filter CNT Membranes.
These membranes are specially designed for water filtration and analysis. They work to remove dissolved salts from water, treat waste, and remove environmental pollutants such as microbes and arsenic. The idea of ​​a relationship between silver and electricity has been exploited and killed
Bacteria by spreading silver nanowires on the silver material and then encapsulating it with carbon nanotubes to gain superior effectiveness on filtering and sterilizing water and reducing the filtration stages in only two stages. This method is an ideal way to treat bacteria
Water, as nano-filters are not subject to clogging and therefore have a long life, in addition to the smooth passage of water through them and do not require chemicals, in addition to being easy to maintain and do not require a large amount of energy. It was also manufactured
A small filter device that works without the use of electricity and can filter and sterilize (1) liters of water per hour, its price does not exceed $ 12 and is able to remove all microbes and dangerous chemicals from water

Wastewater treatment: In the current era and in light of the scarcity of water resources, wastewater treatment is a prerequisite for achieving sustainability because of its environmental effects that harm current and future generations.
Therefore, it is necessary to take advantage of the development of science and technology to develop advanced technologies for treating wastewater with high efficiency, and among the treatments for the different wastewater problem is the use of nano materials that have the ability to provide solutions
A sustainable operation and economics in this field can be summarized in four categories:

1- Using some nano materials such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, titanium oxide, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, and iron oxide, which are applied to remove heavy metals from wastewater.

2- The use of nano-catalysts such as photocatalysis and a chemical oxidizer for the possibility of removing all of the organic pollutants -
and inorganic.
3- Using nano-membranes to remove dyes and heavy metals through membranes of carbon nanotubes, and fibers -
Electronegativity and hybrid nano-membranes.
4- Integration of nanotechnology with biological processes such as the presence of a membrane bioreactor and microbial fuel cell -
To access the latest wastewater purification capabilities. A team from the Center for Nanotechnology for Environmental and Biological Sciences of the American Rice University developed membrane filters, by manufacturing filters
Made of Iron Oxide Ceramic Membrane, which are nano-granules, these membranes are known as Reactive Membranes for their superior ability to remove and analyze pollutants and organic waste from water and disinfect it for efficient and sustainable water recycling through green nanotechnology in order to: better environment

The role of technology in achieving the dimensions of sustainable development

Environmental dimension: Nanotechnology contributes to achieving the environmental dimension of sustainable development by using cleaner production techniques as an introduction to the application of nanotechnology, especially as it represents a strategy for the industrial facility as a whole and is not a private one.
In the production department only. The main objective of cleaner production is to work on the sustainability of industrial production and energy and reduce environmental pollution resulting from industrial facilities, and this is what is produced by the introduction of nanotechnology in
the industrial field, taking into account the financial cost of its application. Given the negative effects and severe damages that befall the environment, especially in the current century, as a result of the irrationality of the industrialization process, many countries have resorted to
Adopting sustainable industrial technology, including (green technology and cleaner production methods), to preserve or reduce environmental risks on the one hand, and preserve natural resources on the other hand, to ensure the share of future generations in them.
In addition to its positive effects on sustainable development, represented in the diversification of alternative energy sources, which contributes to reducing the percentage of pollution emitted from them and lowering costs. As well as producing alternatives to rare and traditional materials, more effective than
Where the characteristics and less pollution, which contributes to the high flexibility of productive work. By reducing the volume of waste to a minimum and using nanomaterials, the energy costs needed to treat pollutants will be reduced.
Thus, to reduce capital, operating and maintenance costs. By applying the Cleaner Production Technology (CPT), the waste volume reduction will occur

As a result, the resource utilization process as a whole is improved
6 The economic dimension: Nanotechnology is considered an industrial revolution similar to the industrial revolution that brought about economic changes and brought the world to what it is today. The economic importance of nanotechnology is due to: 1
Nanotechnology is based on building new materials as an alternative to traditional materials with high costs. 6 The new nanomaterials have distinctive properties compared to the traditional ones, such as strength, stiffness, and electrical conductivity. 7 The possibility of using nanomaterials -
in various industries and areas of life. 1 The possibility of using some waste and recycling it to manufacture new nano-materials. These advantages allow the production of any commodity at a lower cost through the use of naturally occurring materials
Poor physical and chemical properties and converting them through nanotechnology into materials with excellent properties by re-paving their atoms to transform from useless materials to materials of value and alternative to most metals and materials
The priority subject to scarcity. The above will lead to the advancement of local production if nanotechnology is used correctly, making the local product able to compete with imported products, which allows the advancement of reality
economic development and achieving economic development by providing products capable of winning competition through quality, efficiency and low cost. Nanotechnology, as a new technological revolution, requires costly financial investments at its inception.
In some of its applications and equipment, which is the same as what happened in the industrial revolution that transformed the world into automated production through industrial equipment and machinery, but nanotechnology can be applied inexpensively and does not need to invest billions of dollars through some low-cost nano biomaterials.
The social dimension: It is represented in the human right to live in a clean and safe environment, while obtaining his right of resources and wealth in a fair manner and allowing him to meet his needs of environmental and social services and ensuring that he obtains his needs of shelter, clothing and food. The unique properties of nanomaterials at the nanoscale 1-100 nanometers

When applied in the manufacturing industry, it achieves high material and social benefits, and then achieves the social welfare of the community (Al-Tayyar, 6112: p. 17). Moreover, nanotechnology, when it reduces costs, will allow the employment of abundant workers.
Costs in other areas, which means eliminating disguised unemployment by providing real productive job opportunities and not jobs that represent unproductive costs and a burden on industrial companies that lead to continued depletion of resources
As a result, the employment of nanotechnology will support the welfare of the community and improve the quality of life.
The Iraqi industrial sector would contribute to achieving the dimensions of sustainable economic, environmental and social development). The above can be summarized by the importance of nanotechnology in achieving the dimensions of development, the three main dimensions of development
Sustainable development has a solid base, which is capital, which is divided into five main types (natural, financial, productive, human, social).
Money of its five types. Nanotechnology works to increase the efficiency of industrial processes, rationalize the use of resources, and reduce environmental impacts by reducing all kinds of waste, thus reaching a low production cost, by using low-cost nanomaterials with higher strength and durability than traditional materials.





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